Born in Kernersville, North Carolina, Kelley Potter trained at the North Carolina School of the Arts, graduating in 2002. While a student at NCSA, she appeared in North Carolina Ballet's production of The Nutcracker, and danced the role of Solace in the world premiere of Lynne Taylor-Corbett's Great Scott. Potter joined American Ballet Theatre's Studio Company (now ABT II) in 2002 and later became an apprentice with ABT, performing various roles as a member of the corps de ballet.
Kelley then joined Boston Ballet in 2003, performing with them until 2008. Her repertory with Boston Ballet included the Snow Queen, Arabian dance, Spanish dance, and Demi Flower in The Nutcracker, lead swan and the pas de cinq in Swan Lake, the lead whore in Romeo and Juliet, Kitri's Friend in Don Quixote, the Pas de Trois, Puss in Boots and the Enchanted Garden Fairy in The Sleeping Beauty, Nancy in La Sylphide, and roles in Jorma Elo's Plan to B and Carmen, Mark Morris' Up and Down, Helen Pickett's Etesian, Val Caniparoli's Lambarena and Sonata, Jiří Kylián's Falling Angels, William Forsythe's In the middle, somewhat elevated, and Twyla Tharp's In the Upper Room.
Potter rejoined American Ballet Theatre as a member of the corps de ballet in January 2009. Her repertory includes the Lead D'Jampe in La Bayadère, a Harlot in Romeo and Juliet, the Spanish Dance in Swan Lake and roles in Black Tuesday and In the Upper Room, as well as roles in all of the Company's full-length ballets.